Course module: SOTER methods for soil mapping
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SOTER methods for soil mapping
Subject areas (Curriculum):
Soil science, soil mapping, global and regional soil databases
The SOTER (SOil and TERrain) program aims to establish a World Soils and Terrain Database, at scale 1:5M, containing digitized map units and their soil and terrain attribute data in a standardized format. The programme is implemented by FAO, UNEP and ISRIC, under the aegis of the IUSS, in collaboration with a wide range of national soil institutes, since 1986. ISRIC plays a lead role in methodology development and programme implementation. This course introduces participants to SOTER. The lecture gives a short history of SOTER program, provides an overview of SOTER products, discusses the methods to construct a SOTER database, explains the database structure, and shows several examples of SOTER databases and their applications. In addition, e-SOTER project and methods and the Harmonized World Soil Database are discussed. In the computer practical participants will take a closer look at a SOTER. The database will be used to map carbon stocks.
B. (Bas) Kempen
After completion of this introductory course participants should: 1) have an understanding SOTER, SOTER methods and the SOTER database structure, 2) know how to apply the database to generate soil information using the statistical software R, and 3) be familiar with the concepts of e-SOTER and the Harmonized World Soil Database.
Software / materials:
Minimum number of participants:
Maximum number of participants:
- BSc, MSc and PhD level students working primarily with soil data.
- Professionals in soil or environmental sciences with an interest in using regional and global soil databases.
- Familiarity with the R language for statistical computing is not required but will ease the computer practical.
- Basic understanding of pedology and soil classification systems (FAO 1988 Revised Legend, WRB) is advantageous
- Introduction to SOTER
- SOTER mapping approach and database structure
- Examples of SOTER databases and database applications
- Introduction to e-SOTER and the Harmonized World Soil Database
Computer practical (2h)
- Load and access a SOTER spatial and attribute database in R. Apply the SOTER database to map the topsoil carbon stock for Tanzania.
- Optional: Processing the Harmonized World Soil Database in R (by: David G. Rossiter, ITC, University of Twente)
SOTER for Southern Africa
Download course materials: SOTER_tutorial.zip
SOTER concepts and procedures
- Oldeman, L. R. and van Engelen, V. W. P., 1993. A world soils and terrain digital database (SOTER) – An improved assessment of land resources. Geoderma 60, 309-325.
- van Engelen, V. W. P., and Dijkshoorn, J. A., 2013. Global and National Soils and Terrain Digital Databases (Procedures Manual, v2.0). ISRIC report 2013/04.
- Dobos, E., Daroussin, J., Montanarella, L., 2005. An SRTM based procedure to delineate SOTER Terrain Units on 1:1 and 1:5 million scales. EUR 21571 EN, 55 pp. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg
Dobos, E., Daroussin, J., Montanarella, L., 2010. A quantitative procedure for building physiographic units supporting a global SOTER database. Foldrajzi Ertesito/Hungarian Geographical Bulletin 59, 181-205.
- Huting, J., Dijkshoorn, J., van Engelen, V., 2008. GIS procedures for mapping SOTER landform for the LADA partner countries (Argentina, China, Cuba, Senegal, South Africa and Tunisia. ISRIC report 2008/04 (GLADA report 2008/02).
- Dijkshoorn, J., van Engelen, V., Huting, J., 2008. Soil and landform properties for LADA partner countries (Argentina, China, Cuba, Senegal and The Gambia, South Africa and Tunisia). ISRIC report 2008/06 (GLADA report 2008/03).
- van Engelen, V., Verdoodt, A., Dijkshoorn, J., van Ranst, E., 2006. Soil and Terrain Database of Central Africa (DR of Congo, Burundi and Rwanda). ISRIC report 2006/07.
- Graef, F., Van Duivenbooden, N., and Stahr, K. (1998). Remote sensing and transectbased retrieval of spatial soil and terrain (SOTER) information in semi-arid Niger. Journal of Arid Environments, 39(4):631–644.
- Batjes, N. H. and Dijkshoorn, J. A. (1999). Carbon and nitrogen stocks in the soils of the Amazon Region. Geoderma, 89(3-4), 273–286.
- Batjes, N. H., 2005. SOTER-based soil parameter estimates for Central and Eastern Europe (Version 2.0). ISRIC report 2005/04.
- Batjes, N. H., 2008. Mapping the soil carbon stocks of Central Africa using SOTER. Geoderma 146, 58-65.
- Batjes, N. H., 2010. Soil property estimates for the Upper Tana, Kenya, derived from SOTER and WISE (Version 1.1). ISRIC report 2010/07b.
- Hartemink, A. E. and Huting, J. (2008). Land cover, extent, and properties of Arenosols in Southern Africa. Arid Land Research and Management, 22(2):134–147.
- Mantel, S. and van Engelen, V. W. P., 1999. Assessment of the impact of water erosion on productivity of maize in Kenya: An integrated modelling approach. Land Degradation & Development 10, 577-592.
- Wösten, J. H. M., Verzandvoort, S. J. E., Leenaars, J. G. B., Hoogland, T., and Wesseling, J. G. (2013). Soil hydraulic information for river basin studies in semi-arid regions. Geoderma, 195-196,79–86.
- FAO/IIASA/ISRIC/ISSCAS/JRC (2012). Harmonized World Soil Database (version 1.2). Technical report, FAO, Rome, Italy and IIASA, Laxenburg, Austria.
- FAO, 2012. State of the art report on global and regional soil information: Where are we? where to go? Global Soil Partnership Technical Report, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.