Reference soil Netherlands 11: Luvisol

CROPS: sugar beet. In adjacent field maize and cereals.
Collection date: 
January, 1960
Soil surveyor: 
Creutzberg D & JHV van Baren
Prov. of Limburg, near Elkenrade
Climate classification: 

WRB 1998:

Verti- Leptic Luvisol
0-0 cm argic horizon  
0-0 cm ochric horizon  



Haplic Luvisol lithic phase
Orthic Luvisol lithic phase
The altitude of the soil profile relative to mean sea level, specified in meters 175 m asl
Regional landform plateau
Topography of the surrounding country rolling
Physiographic Unit in the immediate surrounding of the site long slope
The slope refers to the inclination of the land immediately surrounding the site. The measured or estimated slope angle is specified to the nearest per cent 5 %
The physiographic position of the site where the profile is located middle slope
Form of the slope surrounding the site straight
Slope Aspect of the site north
Parent material: 
The main parent rock/ material over which the soil has been formed (1st entry) limestone
Mode of Accumulation or deposition of parent material (1st entry) residual material
Texture of parent material (1st entry)  
Weathering status of solid rock (1st entry) partially or moderately
Resistance against weathering (solid rock) (1st entry) moderate
Depth1 of lithological boundary 40 cm
The main parent rock/ material over which the soil has been formed (2nd entry)  
Texture of parent material (2nd entry) clayey
Resistance against weathering (solid rock) (2nd entry)  
Soil Depth; depth to which roots can easily penetrate throughout the year 40 cm
Remarks on Parent Materials soft limestone
Hydrology and drainage: 
Depth of groundwater table cm
Groundwater Top cm
Groundwater Bottom cm
Kind of groundwater table no groundwater table observed
Top Stagnating Layer cm
Bottom Stagnating Layer cm
Runoff rapid
Flooding frequency never
Estimated permeablity (class) of least permeable part of the profile moderate
Drainage Class well
To Drainage Class  
Moisture conditions of the profile: dry from -to 0-20 cm
Moisture conditions of the profile: moist from -to 20-40 cm
Wet From - To cm
Land use: 
Current land use at the site arable farming
Major crops root crops
Main type of irrigation no irrigation
Rotation scheme continuous crop rotation
Vegetation Type;The natural vegetation at the site  
Status of vegetation  
Soil erosion type (1st entry) sheet
Intensity of the soil erosion type (1st entry) slight
Occurrence of soil aggradation not apparent
Slope Stability locally unstable
Surface characteristics: 
Microrelief type: small-scale differences in relief in the direct vicinity of the site artificial terracing/mounds
Microrelief Pattern linear
Microrelief Height 300
Rockiness none
Stoniness very few stones
Average size of stones  
Shape of stones (on average)  
Cracks small cracks (width less than 1 cm, or depth less than 50 cm)
Slaking of aggregates by tillage, rainfall or frost surface partly slaked, round smooth aggregates
Evidence of salt non-saline
Evidence of alkali non-alkaline