Reference soil Indonesia 29: Andosol

Code: 
ID029
Latitude: 
2.57
Longitude: 
98.62
Description: 
The original forest has been cleared, at present fallow land with abundant ferns. At some distance of site low level arable farming, mainly horticulture. All horizons have clearly a low bulk density. In the BA horizon the soil colours change gradually from the colours of the A and the B horizon. From 80 to 108 the profile consists of a serise of thin horizons which are influenced by redox processes. It has been described as Bs(80-90) and Bg?(90-108) horizons. The Bg? itself can be subdivided in very thin layers: Bg(90-100) 10YR4/4, clay loam, Bh(100-103) 5YR2.5/2, loamy sand (buried A horizon?) and Bs(103-108) 2.5YR4/8, loamy sand. The sequence of these thin layers varies locally, its genesis is not clear. Roots are concentrated in coarse channels in the Bg and C horizons. The C horizons have a sandy texture, the sand consists mainly of translucent fragments, probably volcanic glass. Penetrometer readings: A 1.6, BA 1.0, Bw 2.6, Bs 3.0-5.0, Bg 1.8, C 2.0, and Cr 5 or more kg/cm2.
Collection date: 
January, 1987
Soil surveyor: 
Kauffman JH & Soedewo
Location: 
Sumatra, Taput, Harian Boho, 2.1km W of Tele (west side bridge left)
Climate classification: 
Af
Classification: 

WRB 2006:

Folic Silandic Andosol (Acroxic Hyperdystric)
0-16 cm folic horizon  
16-79 cm cambic horizon  
andic properties  

FAO-UNESCO-ISRIC 1988:

FAO-UNESCO 1974:

Andi- Ferralic Cambisol
Ferralic Cambisol
0-35 cm histic H horizon  
16-79 cm cambic B horizon  
andic properties  
smeary consistence  
0-35 cm histic H horizon  
16-79 cm cambic B horizon  
exchange complex dominated by amorphous material  
smeary consistence
Physiography: 
The altitude of the soil profile relative to mean sea level, specified in meters 1800 m asl
Regional landform plateau
Topography of the surrounding country flat or almost flat
Physiographic Unit in the immediate surrounding of the site  
The slope refers to the inclination of the land immediately surrounding the site. The measured or estimated slope angle is specified to the nearest per cent 1 %
The physiographic position of the site where the profile is located flat
Form of the slope surrounding the site straight
Slope Aspect of the site
Parent material: 
The main parent rock/ material over which the soil has been formed (1st entry) acidic tuff
Mode of Accumulation or deposition of parent material (1st entry) ejecta ash
Texture of parent material (1st entry) sandy
Weathering status of solid rock (1st entry) partially or moderately
Depth1 of lithological boundary cm
The main parent rock/ material over which the soil has been formed (2nd entry)  
Texture of parent material (2nd entry) sandy
Resistance against weathering (solid rock) (2nd entry)  
Soil Depth; depth to which roots can easily penetrate throughout the year 130 cm
Remarks on Parent Materials Toba tuff-liparite
Hydrology and drainage: 
Depth of groundwater table cm
Groundwater Top cm
Groundwater Bottom cm
Kind of groundwater table no groundwater table observed
Top Stagnating Layer 80 cm
Bottom Stagnating Layer 90 cm
Runoff slow
Flooding frequency never
Estimated permeablity (class) of least permeable part of the profile moderate
Drainage Class moderately well
To Drainage Class  
Moisture conditions of the profile: dry from -to cm
Moisture conditions of the profile: moist from -to 0-150 cm
Wet From - To cm
Land use: 
Current land use at the site (semi-)natural vegetation
Major crops  
Main type of irrigation  
Rotation scheme  
Vegetation Type;The natural vegetation at the site evergreen woodland
Status of vegetation degraded
Remarks on Land Use / Vegetation VEGETATION: The original forest has been cleared, at present fallow land with abundant ferns. At some distance of site low level arable farming, mainly horticulture.
Erosion: 
Soil erosion type (1st entry)  
Occurrence of soil aggradation  
Slope Stability
Surface characteristics: 
Microrelief type: small-scale differences in relief in the direct vicinity of the site  
Microrelief Height  
Rockiness none
Stoniness none
Average size of stones  
Shape of stones (on average)  
Cracks no cracks observed
Slaking of aggregates by tillage, rainfall or frost no surface slaking/crusting observed
Evidence of salt non-saline
Evidence of alkali non-alkaline