Reference soil India 11: Haplic Calcisol

A moderately deep, very dark gray clayey soil developed from hornblende schists and calcitic gneisses which occurs 2 m below the surface. Due to abundant calcium carbonate concretions (80-90ì %) varying in size from 10-25 mm and some "powdery" clay material, the poorly drained Cca horizon has 3 different colours: white (2.5Y 8/2), pale yellow (2.5Y 8/4) and olive gray (5Y 5/2). The natural vegetation consists of Acacia, Palmyra, Azadirachta indic and Calatropis gigantea. PARENT MATERIAL: highly altered hornblende schists rich in ferromagnesian minerals and plagioclases; also calcitic gneiss NATURAL VEGETATION: Acacia spp, Palmyra spp, Azadirachta indica, Calatropis gigantea.
Collection date: 
November, 1972
Soil surveyor: 
Mysore State, Bellary District, Prithiswaram, near km 6 on Harapanaha



Sodi- Haplic Calcisol
Calcic Xerosol sodic phase
0-0 cm calcic horizon  
0-0 cm cambic B horizon  
0-0 cm ochric A horizon  
sodic properties  
0-0 cm calcic horizon  
0-0 cm cambic B horizon  
0-0 cm ochric A horizon
The altitude of the soil profile relative to mean sea level, specified in meters 600 m asl
Regional landform pediplain
Topography of the surrounding country undulating
Physiographic Unit in the immediate surrounding of the site gently sloping midland
The slope refers to the inclination of the land immediately surrounding the site. The measured or estimated slope angle is specified to the nearest per cent 3 %
The physiographic position of the site where the profile is located slope
Parent material: 
The main parent rock/ material over which the soil has been formed (1st entry) metamorphic rock
Mode of Accumulation or deposition of parent material (1st entry) residual material
Texture of parent material (1st entry)  
Weathering status of solid rock (1st entry) highly
Resistance against weathering (solid rock) (1st entry) poor
Soil Depth; depth to which roots can easily penetrate throughout the year 120 cm
Remarks on Parent Materials schist and gneiss
Hydrology and drainage: 
Kind of groundwater table no groundwater table observed
Runoff medium
Flooding frequency never
Estimated permeablity (class) of least permeable part of the profile slow
Drainage Class imperfect
Moisture conditions of the profile: dry from -to 0-120 cm
Land use: 
Current land use at the site arable farming
Major crops cotton
Soil erosion type (1st entry) sheet
Intensity of the soil erosion type (1st entry) moderate
Surface characteristics: 
Cracks large cracks (width more than 1 cm, or depth more than 50 cm)
Slaking of aggregates by tillage, rainfall or frost no surface slaking/crusting observed
Evidence of salt non-saline
Evidence of alkali slightly alkaline