Reference soil China, mainland 40: Phaeozem

Code: 
CN040
Latitude: 
45.32
Longitude: 
126.58
Collection date: 
January, 1993
Soil surveyor: 
Boerma JAK
Location: 
Heilongjiang Province, Gaosheng, Yagou, Acheng County
Classification: 

WRB 2006:

WRB 1998:

Luvic Greyic Phaeozem(Albic Siltic)
Albi- Luvic Phaeozem(Greyic Siltic)
0-40 cm mollic horizon  
25-55 cm albic horizon  
55-180 cm argic horizon  
0-40 cm mollic horizon  
25-55 cm albic horizon  
55-180 cm argic horizon  

 

FAO-UNESCO-ISRIC 1988:

FAO-UNESCO 1974:

Albi- Haplic Greyzem
Orthic Greyzem
0-40 cm mollic A horizon  
25-55 cm albic E horizon  
55-180 cm argic B horizon  
interfingering  
0-40 cm mollic A horizon  
25-55 cm albic E horizon  
55-180 cm argillic B horizon  
Physiography: 
The altitude of the soil profile relative to mean sea level, specified in meters 200 m asl
Regional landform alluvial terrace
Topography of the surrounding country hilly
Physiographic Unit in the immediate surrounding of the site slightly sloping terrace
The slope refers to the inclination of the land immediately surrounding the site. The measured or estimated slope angle is specified to the nearest per cent 2 %
The physiographic position of the site where the profile is located flat
Parent material: 
The main parent rock/ material over which the soil has been formed (1st entry) sediment, unconsolidated
Mode of Accumulation or deposition of parent material (1st entry) fluvial
Texture of parent material (1st entry) loamy
Remarks on Parent Materials fluvio-limnic
Hydrology and drainage: 
Kind of groundwater table no groundwater table observed
Top Stagnating Layer 180 cm
Bottom Stagnating Layer 0 cm
Runoff medium
Flooding frequency never
Drainage Class moderately well
Land use: 
Current land use at the site low level arable farming
Major crops maize
Main type of irrigation no irrigation
Rotation scheme continuous crop rotation
Remarks on Land Use / Vegetation
Erosion: 
Soil erosion type (1st entry) sheet
Intensity of the soil erosion type (1st entry) slight
Occurrence of soil aggradation not apparent
Slope Stability stable
Surface characteristics: 
Rockiness none
Stoniness none
Cracks no cracks observed
Slaking of aggregates by tillage, rainfall or frost surface slaked; sorted sand/silt, some clay films
Evidence of salt non-saline
Evidence of alkali non-alkaline

Nearest climate station:

Station : Acheng
Country : China, mainland
WMO Code : 9999
Distance : 10 km ESE (good )
Latitude / Longitude : 45.5167,126.9500

Climate data*:

dataType(Station) : nrecord Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
Precipitation (mm)(Acheng) : 21 2 3 9 25 47 87 154 91 59 27 8 4 516
Mean temperature (°C)(Acheng) : 21 -19.7 -15.8 -4.8 6 14.3 19.7 22.7 21.1 14.5 5.2 -5.9 -16.1 3.4
Maximum temperature (°C)(Acheng) : - -9 -6 2 12 20 23 26 25 20 13 3 -6 10.3
Minimum temperature (°C)(Acheng) : - -27 -24 -13 -3 3 9 14 13 5 -4 -13 -22 -5.2

*Data are considered representative for site

Physical

Particle size distribution:

Depth (cm)   Gravel (%) Very Coarse Sand (%) Coarse Sand (%) Medium Sand (%) Fine Sand (%) Very Fine Sand (%) Total Sand (%) Coarse Silt (%) Fine Silt (%) Total Silt (%) Clay (%)
0-20 : - 0.3 0.7 0.8 0.7 5.3 - 37.4 29.2 66.6 25.6
30-50 : - 0.0 0.3 0.4 0.2 2.7 - 34.9 42.8 77.7 18.7
60-90 : - 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.2 - 28.5 33.0 61.5 36.9
110-140 : - 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.0 - 21.9 40.3 62.2 36.5
200-220 : - 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 - 26.8 37.1 63.9 34.6

Water retention characteristics

Depth (cm)   Bulk Density (kg/dm³) pF 0 (% w/v) pF 1.0 (% w/v) pF 1.5 (% w/v) pF 2.0 (% w/v) pF 2.3 (% w/v) pF 2.7 (% w/v) pF 3.4 (% w/v) pF 4.2 (% w/v) pF 2.5 (%)
10-15 : 1.342 45.6 43.0 42.4 39.8 37.4 34.3 26.7 17.9 -
35-40 : 1.566 38.2 35.3 33.9 32.3 31.0 29.3 22.7 15.2 -
65-70 : 1.577 38.8 37.1 36.5 35.5 34.7 33.9 33.4 27.4 -

Other physical data

Depth (cm)   Bulk Density (kg/dm³) Spec. Surf. Area (m2/g) COLE (cm/cm) Water Disp. Clay (%) Clay (%)
0-20 : - - - 9.2 25.6
30-50 : - - - 9.9 18.7
60-90 : - - - 10.5 36.9
110-140 : - - - 3.7 36.5
200-220 : - - - 11.3 34.6

Chemical characteristics:

Depth (cm)   pH H2O pH KCl EC 1 : 2.5 (mS/cm) CaCO3 (%) Org. C (%) Org. N (%) C / N Exch. Acid (cmol/kg) Exch. Al (cmol/kg) Ca (cmol/kg) Mg (cmol/kg) K (cmol/kg) Na (cmol/kg) Sum Cations (cmol/kg)
0-20 : 6.7 6.3 0.11 1.1 1.77 - - - - 20.8 2.4 0.1 0.1 -
30-50 : 5.5 3.9 0.04 - 0.17 - - - - 6.6 1.7 0.1 0.4 -
60-90 : 5.3 3.6 0.03 - 0.27 - - - - 11.6 4.6 0.2 0.6 -
110-140 : 5.2 3.6 0.02 - 0.17 - - - - 14.5 5.6 0.3 0.8 -
200-220 : 5.7 4.1 0.03 - 0.20 - - - - 13.1 4.9 0.3 0.7 -

 

Depth (cm)   CEC Soil (cmol/kg) CEC Clay (cmol/kg) CEC Org (cmol/kg) ECEC (cmol/kg) Base sat. (%) Al sat. (%) ESP (%)
0-20 : 20.4 - 6.2 - - - 0
30-50 : 10.5 - 0.6 - - - 4
60-90 : 21.0 - 0.9 - - - 3
110-140 : 21.2 - 0.6 - - - 4
200-220 : 21.9 - 0.7 - - - 3


 

Depth (cm)   P Olsen (mg/kg) P Bray (mg/kg) pH CaCl2 CaSO4.2H2O (%)
0-20 : 22.1 - - -
30-50 : 16.6 - - -
60-90 : 20.2 - - -
110-140 : 39.1 - - -
200-220 : 36.8 - - -

Clay mineralogy:

Depth (cm)   Kaolinite Mica / illite Vermiculite Chlorite Smec Halloysite Mixed layer Quar Feldspar Gibbsite Goethite Hematite
0-20 : weak weak - weak medium to strong - - weak - - - -
30-50 : weak weak - medium to strong weak - - weak - - - -
60-90 : weak weak - medium to strong medium to strong - - weak - - - -
110-140 : weak weak - weak strong - - weak - - - -
200-220 : weak weak - weak strong - - weak - - - -