Reference soil China, mainland 14: Solonchak

Code: 
CN014
Latitude: 
42.50
Longitude: 
89.25
Collection date: 
January, 1985
Soil surveyor: 
Kauffman JH
Location: 
Xinjiang Autonomous Region, Turpan
Climate classification: 
BWk
Classification: 

WRB 2006:

WRB 1998:

Puffic Petrosalic Solonchak(Sodic Sulphatic Takyric)
Epipetrosali- Sodic Solonchak(Aridic Hypersalic)
0-65 cm salic horizon  
0-8 cm takyric horizon  
0-65 cm salic horizon  
0-8 cm takyric horizon  

 

FAO-UNESCO-ISRIC 1988:

FAO-UNESCO 1974:

Petri- Sodic Solonchak phreatic phase
Orthic Solonchak phreatic phase
0-8 cm ochric A horizon  
salic properties  
sodic properties  
0-8 cm ochric A horizon  
high salinity  
Physiography: 
The altitude of the soil profile relative to mean sea level, specified in meters -80 m asl
Regional landform intermontane basin
Topography of the surrounding country flat or almost flat
Physiographic Unit in the immediate surrounding of the site Turpan depression
The slope refers to the inclination of the land immediately surrounding the site. The measured or estimated slope angle is specified to the nearest per cent 1 %
Parent material: 
The main parent rock/ material over which the soil has been formed (1st entry) sediment, unconsolidated
Mode of Accumulation or deposition of parent material (1st entry) colluvial
Texture of parent material (1st entry) loamy
Remarks on Parent Materials alluvium
Hydrology and drainage: 
Depth of groundwater table 200 cm
Kind of groundwater table groundwater table observed
Runoff slow
Flooding frequency never
Estimated permeablity (class) of least permeable part of the profile high
Drainage Class imperfect
Land use: 
Current land use at the site semi-natural grassland, grazed
Main type of irrigation no irrigation
Vegetation Type;The natural vegetation at the site grassland
Remarks on Land Use / Vegetation VEGETATION: 10-20% covered by salt-resistant herb and reed vegetation, consisting mainly of Alhagi and Phragmites LANDUSE: Occasionally grazed by camels
Surface characteristics: 
Rockiness none
Stoniness none
Cracks no cracks observed
Slaking of aggregates by tillage, rainfall or frost surface capped, crust on drying
Evidence of salt strongly saline
Evidence of alkali strongly alkaline

 

Nearest climate station:

Station : Turpan
Country : China, mainland
WMO Code : 51.573
Distance : 35 km WNW (very good )
Latitude / Longitude : 42.9333,89.2000

Climate data*:

dataType(Station) : nrecord Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
Precipitation (mm)(Turpan) : 20 2 0 2 1 1 4 3 4 2 1 1 2 23
Mean temperature (°C)(Turpan) : 20 -8 -2 8 18 25 32 33 29 24 13 0.5 -5 14
Maximum temperature (°C)(Turpan) : 20 -2 4 15.1 25 31.5 38 40 38 30 22 7 2 20.9
Minimum temperature (°C)(Turpan) : 20 -14 -8.2 1.2 10 17.3 23 25 19.8 12.2 4 -8.9 -12.7 5.7
Relative humidity (%)(Turpan) : 29 59 46 33 27 27 29 31 36 41 49 53 62 41.1
Pot. evapotranspiration (mm)(Turpan) : 20 1.7 2.1 3.5 5.6 9.2 13.8 15.1 14 11 6.7 3.2 2.4 7.4
Epot. - Penman (mm)(Turpan) : 29 0 0 93 147 205 231 239 211 144 81 0 0 1351
Epot. - Frere, Popov (mm)(Turpan) : - 9 23 74 143 195 229 232 207 135 54 19 7 1327
Bright sunshine (%)(Turpan) : 20 70 70 68 68 70 69 70 73 77 75 70 65 70.4
Bright sunshine (hours/day)(Turpan) : 29 5.8 7.3 7.9 8.7 9.7 10.3 10.3 10.2 9.6 8.5 6.8 5.3 8.4
Estimated global radiation (MJ/m²)(Turpan) : - 7.7 10.8 14.7 19 22.3 23.5 23.1 21.1 17.6 12.9 8.6 6.6 15.7
Windspeed (m/s, at 2m height)(Turpan) : 20 1.4 1.4 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2 2 1.6 1.5 1.8 1.5 1.8

*Data are considered representative for site

Physical

Particle size distribution:

Depth (cm)   Gravel (%) Very Coarse Sand (%) Coarse Sand (%) Medium Sand (%) Fine Sand (%) Very Fine Sand (%) Total Sand (%) Coarse Silt (%) Fine Silt (%) Total Silt (%) Clay (%)
0-8 : - 0.3 0.3 0.4 1.9 14.8 - 34.6 31.6 66.2 16.2
8-25 : 73 - - - - - - - - - -
25-44 : - 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.3 13.6 - 42.1 33.9 76.0 8.8
44-65 : - 0.0 0.1 0.1 1.3 12.4 - 43.6 30.8 74.4 11.8
65-125 : - 0.0 0.1 0.0 3.3 16.0 - 36.3 29.5 65.8 14.7
0-25 : - - - - - - - - - - -

Water retention characteristics

Depth (cm)   Bulk Density (kg/dm³) pF 0 (% w/v) pF 1.0 (% w/v) pF 1.5 (% w/v) pF 2.0 (% w/v) pF 2.3 (% w/v) pF 2.7 (% w/v) pF 3.4 (% w/v) pF 4.2 (% w/v) pF 2.5 (%)
35-40 : 0.985 68.6 63.2 57.1 45.1 30.1 23.1 17.3 15.2 -
40-45 : 1.214 58.4 56.3 49.7 39.2 32.7 27.6 20.1 15.9 -

Other physical data

Depth (cm)   Bulk Density (kg/dm³) Spec. Surf. Area (m2/g) COLE (cm/cm) Water Disp. Clay (%) Clay (%)
0-8 : - - - - 16.2
8-25 : - - - - -
25-44 : - - - - 8.8
44-65 : - - - - 11.8
65-125 : - - - - 14.7
0-25 : - - - - -

Chemical characteristics:

Depth (cm)   pH H2O pH KCl EC 1 : 2.5 (mS/cm) CaCO3 (%) Org. C (%) Org. N (%) C / N Exch. Acid (cmol/kg) Exch. Al (cmol/kg) Ca (cmol/kg) Mg (cmol/kg) K (cmol/kg) Na (cmol/kg) Sum Cations (cmol/kg)
0-8 : 8.7 8.6 39.00 2.6 1.59 - - - - 101.4 15.2 1.8 6.8 -
8-25 : 8.6 8.4 59.00 1.1 0.38 - - - - 59.5 16.2 0.1 61.4 -
25-44 : 8.5 8.2 14.00 2.9 0.46 - - - - 153.6 19.1 0.8 2.9 -
44-65 : 8.9 8.7 8.90 3.0 0.24 - - - - 169.8 11.6 0.9 2.1 -
65-125 : 8.5 8.2 6.00 3.0 0.28 - - - - 201.5 11.9 0.7 2.8 -
0-25 : - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Depth (cm)   CEC Soil (cmol/kg) CEC Clay (cmol/kg) CEC Org (cmol/kg) ECEC (cmol/kg) Base sat. (%) Al sat. (%) ESP (%)
0-8 : 8.5 - 5.6 - - - 80
8-25 : 1.3 - 1.3 - - - 100
25-44 : 8.4 - 1.6 - - - 35
44-65 : 8.7 - 0.8 - - - 24
65-125 : 9.5 - 1.0 - - - 29
0-25 : - - - - - - -

 

Depth (cm)   pH NaF P Retention (%) ODOE Melanic Index Fe o (wt%) Al o (wt%) Si o (wt%) Fe d (wt%) Al d (wt%) Fe p (wt%) Al p (wt%) C p (wt%)
0-8 : - - - - 0.10 0.10 2.00 0.70 0.10 - - -
8-25 : - - - - 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.00 - - -
25-44 : - - - - 0.10 0.20 0.10 0.50 0.10 - - -
44-65 : - - - - 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.60 0.10 - - -
65-125 : - - - - 0.10 0.10 0.20 0.60 0.10 - - -
0-25 : - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Soluble salts:

Depth (cm)   Ca (mmol (c) / kg soil) Mg (mmol (c) / kg soil) K (mmol (c) / kg soil) Na (mmol (c) / kg soil) Sum Cations (mmol (c) / kg soil) CO3 (mmol (c) / kg soil) HCO3 (mmol (c) / kg soil) Cl (mmol (c) / kg soil) SO4 (mmol (c) / kg soil) NO3 (mmol (c) / kg soil) Sum anions (mmol (c) / kg soil)
0-8 : 2.88 18.8 2.2 153.1 - - 1.4 97.6 70.8 1.00 -
8-25 : 0.29 176.9 0.8 173.3 - - 2.7 29.6 284.7 1.00 -
25-44 : 1.54 33.8 0.3 51.2 - - 0.7 7.4 80.7 0.00 -
44-65 : 1.21 5.9 0.2 29.0 - - 0.2 8.0 30 0.00 -
65-125 : 1.34 1.9 0.1 13.9 - - 0.1 5.4 11.9 0.00 -
0-25 : - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Soluble salts:

Depth (cm)   Sodium Ads. Ratio pH e EC e (mS/cm) EC 1 : 5 (mS/cm)
0-8 : 224 8.1 40.00 -
8-25 : 84 7.4 28.60 -
25-44 : 52 8.0 28.60 -
44-65 : 75 8.4 22.80 -
65-125 : 19 7.8 15.90 -
0-25 : - - - -