Reference soil Brazil 7: Nitisol

Collection date: 
January, 2013
Soil surveyor: 
Kauffman JH & B Calderano Filho
Pará State, 34km from Londrina on highway to Ponta Grossa, 20 mtrs left
Climate classification: 

WRB 2006:

WRB 1998:

Lixic Mollic Ferralic Nitisol(Hypereutric Rhodic)
Humi- Mollic Nitisol(Rhodic Ferralic)
0-32 cm mollic horizon  
32-75 cm argic horizon  
75-175 cm nitic horizon  
ferralic properties  
0-32 cm mollic horizon  
32-275 cm argic horizon  
75-150 cm nitic horizon  
ferralic properties  




Niti- Luvic Phaeozem
Luvic Phaeozem
0-32 cm mollic A horizon  
32-275 cm argic B horizon  
nitic properties  
0-32 cm mollic A horizon  
32-275 cm argillic B horizon  
ferric properties  


The altitude of the soil profile relative to mean sea level, specified in meters 480 m asl
Regional landform pediplain
Topography of the surrounding country rolling
Physiographic Unit in the immediate surrounding of the site low, broad hill
The slope refers to the inclination of the land immediately surrounding the site. The measured or estimated slope angle is specified to the nearest per cent 15 %
The physiographic position of the site where the profile is located middle slope
Form of the slope surrounding the site convex
Parent material: 
The main parent rock/ material over which the soil has been formed (1st entry) fine-grained ultrabasic igneous rock
Mode of Accumulation or deposition of parent material (1st entry) residual material
Texture of parent material (1st entry) clayey
Weathering status of solid rock (1st entry) highly
Resistance against weathering (solid rock) (1st entry) poor
Remarks on Parent Materials diabase, Upper Trias
Hydrology and drainage: 
Kind of groundwater table no groundwater table observed
Runoff medium
Flooding frequency never
Estimated permeablity (class) of least permeable part of the profile moderate
Drainage Class well
Land use: 
Current land use at the site high level arable farming
Major crops annual crops
Remarks on Land Use / Vegetation LANDUSE: Crops grown: soja, maize, wheat, cotton, beans, ramin (malvaceae, fibre), peanuts, sunflower, rice, tea. In addition horticulture, silviculture (grapes, apples) and cattle breeding.
Soil erosion type (1st entry) sheet
Soil erosion type (2nd entry) gully
Intensity of the soil erosion type (1st entry)  
Surface characteristics: 
Rockiness little rocky
Stoniness none
Cracks small cracks (width less than 1 cm, or depth less than 50 cm)
Slaking of aggregates by tillage, rainfall or frost no surface slaking/crusting observed
Evidence of salt non-saline
Evidence of alkali non-alkaline