Reference soil Brazil 12: Anthrosol

Code: 
BR012
Description: 
Black, very deep, well drained clay soil. The soil is strongly determined by past human influences shown by accumulation of organic matter and the many pot sherds in the A1 horizon ('man made soil' or Anthrosol). The soil has been occupied by indian settlements during centuries, who practized fertilization of the soil with household waste. The first 5 cm from the surface are slightly compacted. The BA horizon (89-124 cm) is characterized by many pockets (5-10 cm diameter) and channels (1-2 cm diameter) filled with darker coloured soil from the overlying horizons. Many channels (1-10 cm diameter), made by different animals and filled with darker topsoil, occur from 170 cm depth.The walls of the bigger channels are covered with a compact, smooth, clay layer of 0.5 to 1 cm thickness. Land use: old rubber estate interspaced with mango trees and vegetable plots. At present the rubber exploitation is extensive. *) Brazilian classification: Latossolo Amarelo com A antropico. Classification in FAO (1975) is not satisfactory, because there is no provision for the Anthropogenic A-horizon. USDA classification: Plaggept with oxic horizon is difficult to classify. Local classification: Terra Preta dos Indios. *) Brazilian classification:Latossolo Amarelo com A antropico.
Collection date: 
January, 1984
Soil surveyor: 
Kauffman JH, WG Sombroek & JS Martins
Location: 
Pará State, Belterra (Santarém)
Climate classification: 
Am
Classification: 

WRB 2006:

WRB 1998:

Ferralic Hortic Anthrosol(Eutric Clayic)
Ferrali- Hortic Anthrosol
0-89 cm hortic horizon  
38-400 cm ferralic horizon  
0-89 cm hortic horizon  
38-400 cm ferralic horizon  

 

 

FAO-UNESCO-ISRIC 1988:

FAO-UNESCO 1974:

Ferrali- Fimic Anthrosol
Xanthic Ferralsol
0-89 cm fimic A horizon  
38-400 cm ferralic B horizon  
0-38 cm ochric A horizon  
38-400 cm oxic B horizon  
Physiography: 
The altitude of the soil profile relative to mean sea level, specified in meters 60 m asl
Regional landform lacustrine plain
Topography of the surrounding country flat or almost flat
Physiographic Unit in the immediate surrounding of the site margin of flat plain
The slope refers to the inclination of the land immediately surrounding the site. The measured or estimated slope angle is specified to the nearest per cent 1 %
The physiographic position of the site where the profile is located middle slope
Form of the slope surrounding the site straight
Slope Aspect of the site
Parent material: 
The main parent rock/ material over which the soil has been formed (1st entry) sediment, unconsolidated
Mode of Accumulation or deposition of parent material (1st entry) lacustrine sediments
Texture of parent material (1st entry) clayey
Weathering status of solid rock (1st entry) highly
Resistance against weathering (solid rock) (1st entry) moderate
Depth1 of lithological boundary cm
The main parent rock/ material over which the soil has been formed (2nd entry)  
Resistance against weathering (solid rock) (2nd entry)  
Soil Depth; depth to which roots can easily penetrate throughout the year 360 cm
Remarks on Parent Materials Belterra clay
Hydrology and drainage: 
Depth of groundwater table cm
Groundwater Top cm
Groundwater Bottom cm
Kind of groundwater table no groundwater table observed
Top Stagnating Layer cm
Bottom Stagnating Layer cm
Runoff very slow
Flooding frequency never
Estimated permeablity (class) of least permeable part of the profile high
Drainage Class well
To Drainage Class  
Moisture conditions of the profile: dry from -to cm
Moisture conditions of the profile: moist from -to 0-360 cm
Wet From - To cm
Land use: 
Current land use at the site plantation forestry
Major crops rubber
Main type of irrigation  
Rotation scheme  
Vegetation Type;The natural vegetation at the site  
Status of vegetation  
Remarks on Land Use / Vegetation VEGETATION: LANDUSE: Old rubber estate interspaced with mango trees and vegetable plots. At present the rubber exploitation is extensive. The area has been occupied by Indian settlements during centuries, who practised fe
Erosion: 
Soil erosion type (1st entry)  
Occurrence of soil aggradation  
Slope Stability
Surface characteristics: 
Microrelief type: small-scale differences in relief in the direct vicinity of the site  
Microrelief Height  
Rockiness none
Stoniness none
Average size of stones  
Shape of stones (on average)  
Slaking of aggregates by tillage, rainfall or frost  
Evidence of salt non-saline
Evidence of alkali

non-alkaline

Microrelief type: small-scale differences in relief in the direct vicinity of the site  
Microrelief Height  
Rockiness none
Stoniness none
Average size of stones  
Shape of stones (on average)  
Slaking of aggregates by tillage, rainfall or frost  
Evidence of salt non-saline
Evidence of alkali non-alkaline
Station : Belterra
Country : Brazil
WMO Code : 9999
Distance : 2 km S (very good )
Latitude / Longitude : -2.6667,-54.8833

Climate data*:

dataType(Station) nrecord Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Annual
Precipitation (mm)(Belterra) - 235 395 325 368 210 182 107 38 30 53 132 190 2265
Mean temperature (°C)(Belterra) - 27.3 27 27 27.2 27.4 27.4 27.6 28.3 28.7 28.9 29.1 28.3 27.9
Relative humidity (%)(Belterra) - 85 92 87 90 80 75 70 59 59 68 78 80 76.9
Epot. - Penman (mm)(Belterra) - 143 112 141 123 141 139 154 180 186 185 161 157 1822
Bright sunshine (%)(Belterra) - 42 31 40 35 49 55 61 71 70 62 51 49 51.3
Total global radiation (MJ/m²)(Belterra) - 18.4 16.1 18.3 16.3 18.1 18.4 19.7 22.7 23.9 23 20.6 19.7 19.6

*Data are considered representative for site

Ah1 0-5 cm : (7.5YR 2/1, moist) , clay , moderate very coarse crumb and moderate very coarse subangular blocky , slightly hard friable slightly sticky slightly plastic , many very fine fine pores , many pottery inclusions , clear smooth boundary to ,
Ah2 5-38 cm : (7.5YR 3/1, moist) , clay , moderate very fine and fine crumb and moderate very fine and fine subangular blocky , slightly hard very friable sticky plastic , many very fine fine pores , many pottery inclusions , clear wavy boundary to ,
AB 38-89 cm : dark brown (7.5YR 3/4, moist) , clay , weak fine and medium subangular blocky , friable sticky plastic , many very fine fine pores , gradual smooth boundary to ,
BA 89-124 cm : strong brown (7.5YR 5/6, moist) , clay , weak fine and medium subangular blocky , very friable sticky plastic , many very fine fine pores , gradual smooth boundary to ,
Bw1 124-170 cm : strong brown (7.5YR 5/6, moist) , clay , weak fine and medium subangular blocky , very friable sticky plastic , many very fine fine pores , diffuse smooth boundary to ,
Bw2 170-210 cm : strong brown (7.5YR 5/8, moist) , clay , moderately coherent porous massive , diffuse smooth boundary to ,
Bw3 210-270 cm : strong brown (7.5YR 5/8, moist) , clay , moderately coherent porous massive , diffuse smooth boundary to ,
Bw4 270-360 cm : yellowish red (5YR 5/8, moist) , clay , moderately coherent porous massive , diffuse smooth boundary to ,
Bw5 360-400 cm : yellowish red (5YR 5/8, moist) , clay , moderately coherent porous massive ,

Physical

Depth (cm) Gravel (%) Very Coarse Sand (%) Coarse Sand (%) Medium Sand (%) Fine Sand (%) Very Fine Sand (%) Total Sand (%) Coarse Silt (%) Fine Silt (%) Total Silt (%) Clay (%)
0-5 - 1.2 1.9 5.9 5.7 2.3 17.0 10.5 16.9 27.4 55.6
5-38 - 0.4 0.6 1.6 1.4 0.6 4.6 9.9 13.0 22.9 72.5
38-89 - 0.2 0.6 1.7 1.7 0.6 4.8 14.5 8.4 22.9 72.2
89-124 - 0.3 0.6 0.7 1.5 0.8 3.9 10.6 9.5 20.1 76.1
124-170 - 0.0 0.4 1.2 1.1 0.4 3.1 8.1 12.4 20.5 76.4
170-210 - 0.1 0.3 1.0 0.9 0.4 2.7 12.3 9.2 21.5 75.9
210-270 - 0.1 0.2 0.7 0.7 0.4 2.1 11.4 9.3 20.7 77.1
270-360 - 0.1 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.3 2.1 18.4 10.2 28.6 69.4
360-400 - 0.0 0.4 0.6 0.8 0.5 2.3 15.0 13.8 28.8 68.9

 

Water retention characteristicsOther physical data">

 

Depth (cm) Bulk Density (kg/dm³) Spec. Surf. Area (m2/g) COLE (cm/cm) Water Disp. Clay (%) Clay (%)
0-5 - 112 - 26.7 55.6
5-38 - 108 - 26.3 72.5
38-89 - 91 - 44.2 72.2
89-124 - 76 - 47.4 76.1
124-170 - 67 - 50.8 76.4
170-210 - 62 - 0.0 75.9
210-270 - 63 - 0.0 77.1
270-360 - 62 - 0.0 69.4
360-400 - 63 - 0.0 68.9

 

Depth (cm) pH H2O pH KCl EC 1 : 2.5 (mS/cm) CaCO3 (%) Org. C (%) Org. N (%) C / N Exch. Acid (cmol/kg) Exch. Al (cmol/kg) Ca (cmol/kg) Mg (cmol/kg) K (cmol/kg) Na (cmol/kg) Sum Cations (cmol/kg)
0-5 6.2 5.2 0.13 - 7.89 0.49 16 - - 28.1 5.0 0.2 0.1 33.4
5-38 6.6 5.4 0.08 - 6.37 0.37 17 - - 28.4 6.4 0.0 0.2 35.0
38-89 6.5 5.3 0.05 - 2.93 0.14 21 - - 13.0 3.4 0.0 0.1 16.5
89-124 6.1 4.9 0.03 - 1.74 0.08 22 - - 6.7 1.2 0.0 0.1 8.0
124-170 6.2 4.9 0.02 - 0.82 - - - - 2.2 1.0 0.0 0.0 3.2
170-210 6.2 5.2 0.02 - 0.45 - - - - 1.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 1.5
210-270 6.2 5.7 0.01 - 0.30 - - - - 0.8 0.7 0.0 0.0 1.5
270-360 6.4 5.7 0.01 - 0.15 - - - - 0.6 0.7 0.0 0.0 1.3
360-400 6.3 5.7 0.01 - 0.12 - - - - 0.4 0.7 0.0 0.0 1.1
Depth (cm) CEC Soil (cmol/kg) CEC Clay (cmol/kg) CEC Org (cmol/kg) ECEC (cmol/kg) Base sat. (%) Al sat. (%) ESP (%)
0-5 41.5 - 28.0 - 80 - 0
5-38 39.8 - 22.0 - 88 - 1
38-89 18.6 - 10.0 - 89 - 1
89-124 10.5 - 6.1 - 76 - 1
124-170 6.3 - 2.9 - 51 - 0
170-210 4.0 - 1.6 - 38 - 0
210-270 2.8 - 1.1 - 54 - 0
270-360 1.9 - 0.5 - 68 - 0
360-400 3.0 - 0.4 - 37 - 0
Depth (cm)   pH NaF P Retention (%) ODOE Melanic Index Fe o (wt%) Al o (wt%) Si o (wt%) Fe d (wt%) Al d (wt%) Fe p (wt%) Al p (wt%) C p (wt%)
0-5 : - - - - 0.20 1.10 0.20 2.10 0.70 - - -
5-38 : - - - - 0.30 1.20 0.40 2.00 0.70 - - -
38-89 : - - - - 0.20 0.50 0.10 2.10 0.50 - - -
89-124 : - - - - 0.20 0.40 0.00 2.00 0.50 - - -
124-170 : - - - - 0.00 0.20 0.00 1.90 0.40 - - -
170-210 : - - - - 0.00 0.10 0.00 1.70 0.40 - - -
210-270 : - - - - 0.00 0.10 0.00 1.70 0.40 - - -
270-360 : - - - - 0.00 0.10 0.00 1.80 0.40 - - -
360-400 : - - - - 0.00 0.10 0.00 1.70 0.30 - - -