Solonetzes occur where a sodium source supplies the clay-rich subsoil with exchangeable Na, causing peptization of clay and organic substances and deterioration of the topsoil.
Soils having a natric horizon (a subsurface horizon with distinct higher clay content than the overlying horizon and more than 15% exchangeable sodium) within 100 cm from the soil surface.
Solonetz with typical columnar structures and bleached top, Brazil(Haplic Solonetz; ISRIC reference soil BR 022)
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