Cryosols

 
Circum-arctic map of permafrost (click to view larger picture)

Cryosols

Cryosols typically occur in arctic and mountainous regions where permanently frozen subsoil or "permafrost" is found.

Characteristics

Soils having one or more cryic horizons (horizon with evidence of being perennially frozen) within 100 cm from the soil surface.

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Swirl-like patterns in a cryoturbated or "cryic" horizon

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Pingo in Greenland

 

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Gleyi-Histic Cryosol (Glacic); West Siberia
(photo St. Brozek)

 

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Turbic Cryosol near Vorkuta, Northern Russia
(photo St. Brozek)