Chernozems

 
Distribution of Chernozems, FAO-GIS (click to view larger picture)

Chernozems

Chernozems are typically found in the long-grass steppe regions of the world, particularly in Eastern Europe and North America (Canada and the USA).

Characteristics

Soils having a very dark mollic horizon (thick, brownish or blackish surface horizon with a significant accumulation of organic matter and high base saturation) and secondary carbonates within 50 cm of the lower limit of the Ah horizon, but within 200 cm from the soil surface. They have no petrocalcic horizon between 25 and 100 cm from the soil surface, no secondary gypsum and no uncoated sand and silt grains on structural pedfaces

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Degrading Chernozem under forest, Germany (Silti-Luvic Chernozem (Vermic); ISRIC reference soil DE 014)

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Deep Chernozem with strong soil faunal activity (e.g. krotovinas), China; land has been under continuous monocrop of maize for more than 10 years
(Vermi-Siltic Chernozem; ISRIC reference soil CN 039)